十一月 7th, 2019  |  未分类


Proponents of different jazz styles have always argued that their
predecessor’s musical style did not include essential characteristics
that define jazz as jazz. Thus, 1940’s swing was belittled by beboppers
of the 1950’s who were themselves attacked by free jazzes of the 1960’s.
The neoboppers of the 1980’s and 1990’s attacked almost everybody else.
The titanic figure of Black saxophonist John Coltrane has complicated
the arguments made by proponents of styles from bebop through neobop
because in his own musical journey he drew from all those styles. His
influence on all types of jazz was immeasurable. At the height of his
popularity, Coltrane largely abandoned playing bebop, the style that had
brought him fame, to explore the outer reaches of jazz。

  引起了极大的纠纷:Arouse much controversy

10.[A] normal[B] common[C] mean[D] total

  中度重教的观念a strong tradition of valuing education

It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this
overwhelmingly significant phase in European history. History and news
become confused, and one’s impressions tend to be a mixture of
skepticism and optimism. Television is one of the means by which these
feelings are created and conveyed — and perhaps never before has it
served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent
events in Europe. The Europe that is now forming cannot be anything
other than its peoples, their cultures and national identities. With
this in mind we can begin to analyze the European television scene. In
Europe, as elsewhere, multi-media groups have been increasingly
successful: groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers,
magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another.
One Italian example would be the Berlusconi group, while abroad Maxwell
and Murdoch come to mind。


When Coltrane began recording for the Impulse! Label, he was still
searching. His music became raucous, physical. His influence on rockers
was enormous, including Jimi Hendrix, the rock guitarist, who, following
Coltrane, raised the extended guitar solo using repeated motifs to a
kind of rock art form。


[D] Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a
solution to a problem; Manager X does not。

  独树一帜,出人头地的人:Rare bird


  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than
others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But
Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a
secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped
popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a
bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy
when it was first suggested.

3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others
is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory
Cochran is to say it anyway. He is that bird, a scientist who works
independently any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some
diseases not thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections,
which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested。

  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously
thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which
aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.



5.[A] Only[B] So[C] Even[D] Hence

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty
genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social
effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas
seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the
inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the
unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique
evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank
and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  不依靠于任何单位:Work indipendently of any institution

13.[A] affirm[B] witness[C] observe[D] approve


[D] The southern colonies were greatly influenced by the high culture
of New England。

  风华正茂想到……就恐怖的肉身颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

  1. The primary purpose of the text is to [A] discuss the place of
    Coltrane in the world of jazz and describe his musical explorations.
    [B] examine the nature of bebop and contrast it with improvisational
    jazz. [C] analyze the musical sources of Coltrane’s style and their
    influence on his work. [D] acknowledge the influence of Coltrane’s
    music on rock music and rock musicians。

  2. Which of the following best describes the organization of the fourth
    paragraph? [A] A thesis referred to earlier in the text is mentioned
    and illustrated with three specific examples. [B] A thesis is stated
    and three examples are given each suggesting that a correction needs to

  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name

  1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first
    paragraph of the text?


[C] It is highly admirable。


[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not。


19.[A] limited[B] subjected[C] converted[D] directed



  由细菌孳生的:Have a bacterial cause

paragraph of the text?[A] A vegetable market in which the various
items are grouped according to place of origin. [B] A wheat field in
which different varieties of wheat are planted to yield a crop that will


[D] They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making
business decisions。

  结构提醒:that some diseases 是近来 the idea 的同位语从句,not
previously thought to have a bacterial
cause做前置定语修饰前边的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually

Eating better. Exercising. Investing. There are a lot of things you know
should be doing. The problem is that getting started always seems to be
the hardest part. For many investors, mutual funds are a good way to go,
but trying to sort through the number of available choices – now more
than 10,000 – makes this important task appear overwhelming. Let’s look
at some ways to cut that number down to a reasonable size, as well as
other factors to consider when selecting your first fund。

  冲突的情事 paradoxical state of affairs

Three recordings illustrate Coltrane’s energizing explorations.
Recording Kind of Blue with Miles Davis, Coltrane found himself outside
bop, exploring modal melodies. Here he played surging, lengthy solos
built largely around repeated motifs — an organizing principle unlike
that of free jazz saxophone player Ornette Coleman, who modulated or
altered melodies in his solos. On Giant Steps, Coltrane debuted as
leader, introducing his own compositions. Here the sheets of sound,
downbeat accents, repetitions, and great speed are part of each solo,
and the variety of the shapes of his phrases is unique. Coltrane’s
searching explorations produced solid achievement. My Favorite Things
was another kind of watershed. Here Coltrane played the soprano
saxophone, an instrument seldom used by jazz musicians. Musically, the
results were astounding. With the soprano’s piping sound, ideas that had
sounded dark and brooding acquired a feeling of giddy fantasy。

  紧凑相关 be intimately linked

Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they
face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn
more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop
a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of
thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the
problem, not just of implementing the solution。


The ease with which a fish can reverse the effect of the sidedness of
its eye asymmetry simply by turning around has caused biologists to
study internal anatomy, especially the optic nerves, for the answer. In
all flatfish the optic nerves cross, so that the right optic nerve is
joined to the brain’s left side and vice versa. This crossing introduces
an asymmetry, as one optic nerve must cross above or below the other. G.
H. Parker reasoned that if, for example, a flatfish’s left eye migrated
when the right optic nerve was on top, there would be a twisting of
nerves, which might be mechanically disadvantageous. For starry
flounders, then, the left-eyed variety would be selected against, since
in a starry flounder the left optic nerve is uppermost。



  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to

9.[A] attaining[B] scoring[C] reaching[D] calculating

  协理广泛该意见:Help popularize the idea

This group generally do well in IQ test, 12-15 points above the value of
100, and have contributed to the intellectual and cultural life of the
West, as the of their elites, including several world-renowned
scientists, . They also suffer more often than most people from a number
of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, , have
previously been thought unrelated. The former has been to social
effects, such as a strong tradition of education. The latter was seen as
a (an) of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence
and diseases are intimately . His argument is that the unusual history
of these people has them to unique evolutionary pressures that have
resulted in this state of affairs。

  被看成基因隔开的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

[A] Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who
rely on formal decision analysis。

  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are
intimately linked.


  此前被感觉是不相干的have previously been thought unrelated

[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say
rather than on what managers do。

  使他们担任独特的进步力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary

[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical
rational model of decision analysis。

7.[A] advises[B] suggests[C] protests[D] objects

[C] The results of recent research are introduced and summarized。

1.[A] selected[B] prepared[C] obliged[D] pleased


Section Ⅲ Translation

  1. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s evaluation of
    Bailyn’s fourth proposition?


he, however, might tremble at the of what he is about to do. Together
with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only
that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but
explains the process that has brought this about. The group in are a
particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural

[C] Managers” intuition works contrary to their rational and
analytical skills。

house increases as houses are built up the hill.40. Which of the
following phrases from the text best expresses the author’s conclusion
about the

[B] Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured servants were more
successful at making a livelihood than were farmers and artisans。

[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably

Section Ⅳ Writing

meaning of the difference between left-eyed and right-eyed
flatfish?[A] “Most striking” (line 3, paragraph 1)[B] “variation is
adaptive” (line 2, paragraph 2)[C] “mechanically disadvantageous”
(line 7, paragraph 3)[D] “evolutionary red herring” (line 9, paragraph

Part B

[C] The colonists imitated the high culture of England, and did not
develop a culture that was uniquely their own。

  1. In terms of its tone and form, the text can best be characterized as
    [A] dogmatic explanation. [B] indignant denial. [C] enthusiastic
    praise. [D] speculative study。


17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D]十大正规网赌网址, instrument

[D] Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated。

Before you begin examining potential investments, it’s important to take
some time to assess your own goals and risk tolerance. If you start with
a clear objective in mind, as well as an understanding as to how you
might react if your investment loses money, you’ll be less likely to
purchase a fund that doesn’t fit your needs. And that’s what often leads
to disappointment. It is important to look for funds that are
appropriate for both your goals and your investment temperament。

[B] identify a problem。

Moreover, the integration of the European community will oblige
television companies to cooperate more closely in terms of both
production and distribution。

Biologists call this kind of gradual variation over a certain geographic
range a “cline” and interpret clines as strong indications that the
variation is adaptive, a response to environmental differences. For the
starry flounder this interpretation implies that a geometric difference
(between fish that are mirror images of one another) is adaptive, that
left-eyedness in the Japanese starry flounder has been selected for,
which provokes a perplexing question: what is the selective advantage in
having both eyes on one side rather than on the other?

The first of these asserts that residents of early modern England moved
regularly about their countryside; migrating to the New World was simply
a natural spillover. Although at first the colonies held little positive
attraction for the English — they would rather have stayed home — by the
eighteenth century people increasingly migrated to America because they
regarded it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn holds that,
contrary to the notion that used to flourish in America history
textbooks, there was never a typical New World community. For example,
the economic and demographic character of early New England towns varied


You are going to read a list of headings and a text about how to select
a fund. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A–F for each
numbered paragraph (41–45). The first and last paragraphs of the text
are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to
use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[C] Bailyn’s description of the colonies as part of an Anglo-American
empire is misleading and incorrect。

Two stylistic characteristics shaped the way Coltrane played the tenor
saxophone: he favored playing fast runs of notes built on a melody and
depended on heavy, regularly accented beats. The first led Coltrane to
“sheets of sound” where he raced faster and faster, pile-driving notes
into each other to suggest stacked harmonies. The second meant that his
sense of rhythm was almost as close to rock as to bebop。

12.[A] missions[B] fortunes[C] interests[D] careers

[B] They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample
of actual managers。

[A] An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given。

Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers
reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior
managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they
intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on
intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This
intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of
painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third
function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and
practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha! experience.
Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more
rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal
decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic
methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions
suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the
correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass
in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution.
Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process
in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns。

[D] stipulate clear goals。

[D] It is controversial though persuasive。

14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile

[A] Bailyn underestimates the effects of Puritan thought on North
American culture。

[C] Weighing your financial goals and expectations first


20.[A] paradoxical[B] incompatible[新金沙3777,C] inevitable[D] continuous

  1. The author of the text states that Bailyn failed to

[A] give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political
interdependence of the colonies and England。

Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of
indentured servants who migrated just prior to the revolution, he fails
to link their experience with the political development of the United
States. Evidence presented in his work suggests how we might make such a
connection. These indentured servants were treated as slaves for the
period during which they had sold their time to American employers. It
is not surprising that as soon as they served their time they passed up
good wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their personal
independence by acquiring land. Thus, it is in the west that a
peculiarly American political culture began, among colonists who were
suspicious of authority and intensely anti-aristocratic。


Funds that invest solely in a single market sectors, called specialty
funds, often have impressive returns and may be great additions to a
diversified portfolio. However, the success of such funds depends
largely on the fortunes of a particular market sector. Hence, specialty
funds probably aren’t the best way to start. For your first fund, look
for a diversified stock fund that has exposure to different types of

[B] Bailyn overemphasizes the economic dependence of the colonies on
Great Britain。


In this section there is a paragraph in English .Translate it into
Chinese and write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

In this part, you are asked to write a composition according to the
information below. You should write more than 150 words neatly on ANSWER
SHEET 2. (15 points)

[C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a
problem; Manager Y does not。

Bailyn’s third proposition suggest two general patterns prevailing among
the many thousands of migrants: one group came as indentured servants,
another came to acquire land. Surprisingly, Bailyn suggests that those
who recruited indentured servants were the driving forces of
transatlantic migration. These colonial entrepreneurs helped determine
the social character of people who came to pre-industrial North America.
At first, thousands of unskilled laborers were recruited; by the 1730’s,
however, American employers demanded skilled artisans。

【新金沙3777】意大利语在寒假中应该怎么样备考呢。One way to begin your search for a good fund is to use the Morningstar
star rating. The rating is a useful tool for narrowing the field to
funds that have done a good job of balancing return and risk in the
past. To assign ratings, Morningstar uses a formula that compares a
fund’s risk-adjusted historical performance with that of other funds
within four rating groups – domestic stock funds, international stock
funds, taxable bond funds, and municipal bond funds。

[A] A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North America came as
indentured servants than as free agents interested in acquiring land。

6.[A] thought[B] sight[C] cost[D] risk

the maximum profit.[C] A flower stall in which the various species of
flowers are arranged according to their price.[D] A housing
development in which the length of the front struts supporting the porch
of each

[A] speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem。

selectively neutral? [D] How do the eyes in flatfish migrate?39. Which
of the following is most clearly similar to a cline as it is described
in the second

Flatfish, such as the flounder, are among the few vertebrates that lack
approximate bilateral symmetry (symmetry in which structures to the left
and right of the body’s midline are mirror images). Most striking among
the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish is eye placement:
before maturity one eye migrates, so that in an adult flatfish both eyes
are on the same side of the head. While in most species with asymmetries
virtually all adults share the same asymmetry, members of the starry
flounder species can be either left-eyed (both eyes on the left side of
head) or right-eyed. In the waters between the United States and Japan,
the starry flounder populations vary from about 50 percent left-eyed off
the United States West Coast, through about 70 percent left-eyed halfway
between the United States and Japan, to nearly 100 percent left-eyed off
the Japanese coast。

Do not write the address。

  1. The author of the text would be most likely to agree with which of
    the following statements about Bailyn’s work?

You and your family are planning for a trip to Hong Kong during the May
holiday. Write a letter to a travel agency to explain your travel plans,
ask for relevant information, and express your gratitude for a reply.
(10 points)


[A] Watching related expenses and making wise choice

4.[A] subsequently[B] presently[C] previously[D] lately

[D] Maintaining realistic expectations

ranked in order of their support of the thesis.[D] A thesis is stated,
three seemingly opposing examples are presented, and their underlying

  1. The text provides support for which of the following statements?

2.[A] unique[B] particular[C] special[D] rare

[B] Paying attention to details

18.[A] linked[B] integrated[C] woven[D] combined

made to a thesis referred to earlier in the text.[C] A thesis referred
to earlier in the text is mentioned, and three examples are presented

[B] describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic backgrounds
preserved their culture in the United States。

Whatever the market does, try to take it in stride. You’re in for the
long haul, so don’t worry about the market’s day-to-day gyrations. Relax
and resist the temptation to monitor your first investment daily. Check
in on your mutual funds once a month, and give your portfolio a thorough
exam every 6 to 12 months. And consider adding to your fund each month.
An automatic investment plan makes it a relatively painless process。

[B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic
analysis; Manager Y does not。

[D] Bailyn failed to test his propositions on a specific group of
migrants to colonial North America。

[A] High culture in New England never equaled the high culture of

One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management
is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know
what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently
act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in
thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their
companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and
then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert。

Part A

11.[A] unconsciously[B] disproportionately

[C] bring together disparate facts。

  1. Which of the following statements about migrants to colonial North
    America is supported by information in the text?

Section I Use of English

15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down

The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the
classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the
problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making
a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision.
Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives
rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of
interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity,
inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the
process of thinking。

Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-civilized
hinterland of the European culture system. He is undoubtedly correct to
insist that the colonies were part of an Anglo-American empire. But to
divide the empire into English core and colonial periphery, as Bailyn
does, devalues the achievements of colonial culture. It is true, as
Bailyn claims, that high culture in the colonies never matched that in
England. But what of seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers
created effective laws, built a distinguished university, and published
books? Bailyn might respond that New England was exceptional. However,
the ideas and institutions developed by New England Puritans had
powerful effects on North American culture。

  1. According to the text,Bailyn and the author agree on which of the
    following statements about the culture of colonial New England?

[A] It is totally implausible。

[E] Narrowing the search

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension (50 points)


[B] The cultural achievements of colonial New England have generally
been unrecognized by historians。

[B] It is partially acceptable。

[D] Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience
more efficiently。


  1. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would
    most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who
    uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal
    decision analysis?

[F] Not too special

There’s no free lunch in fund investing: in addition to the sales fees
that some fund companies charge, fund investors must also pay management
fees and trading costs. Unfortunately, you don’t necessarily get what
you pay for – no one has ever shown that more expensive funds provide
greater returns. Look for funds with reasonable costs. The expense
ratio, which expresses annual costs as a percentage amount, is probably
the best number to use when comparing mutual fund costs。

[D] By the 1730’s,migrants already skilled in a trade were in more
demand by American employers than were unskilled laborers。

[C] take advantage of social research on the experiences of colonists
who migrated to colonial North America specifically to acquire land。

The problem with the above explanation is that the Japanese starry
flounder population is almost exclusively left-eyed, and natural
selection never promotes a purely less advantageous variation. As other
explanations proved equally untenable, biologists concluded that there
is no important adaptive difference between left-eyedness and
right-eyedness, and that the two characteristics are genetically
associated with some other adaptively significant characteristic. This
situation is one commonly encountered by evolutionary biologists, who
must often decide whether a characteristic is adaptive or selectively
neutral. As for the left-eyed and right-eyed flatfish, their difference,
however striking, appears to be an evolutionary red herring.36.
According to the text, starry flounder differ form most other species of
flatfish in that starry flounder [A] are not basically bilaterally
symmetric. [B] do not become asymmetric until adulthood. [C] do not
all share the same asymmetry. [D] have both eyes on the same side of
the head.37. Which of the following best describes the organization of
the text as a whole? [A] A phenomenon is described and an
interpretation presented and rejected. [B] A generalization is made
and supporting evidence is supplied and weighed. [C] A contradiction
is noted and a resolution is suggested and then modified. [D] A series
of observations is presented and explained in terms of the dominant
theory.38. The text supplies information for answering which of the
following questions? [A] Why are Japanese starry flounder mostly
left-eyed? [B] Why should the eye-sidedness in starry flounder be
considered selectively neutral? [C] Why have biologists recently
become interested in whether a characteristic is adaptive or

correspondence is explained。

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some
practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such
writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the
opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for

Bernard Bailyn has recently reinterpreted the early history of the
United States by applying new social research findings on the
experiences of European migrants. In his reinterpretation, migration
becomes the organizing principle for rewriting the history of
pre-industrial North America. His approach rests on four separate

[B] A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced。

Part A

[A] degree to which Coltrane’s music encompassed all of jazz. [B]
repetition of motifs that Coltrane used in his solos. [C] number of
his own compositions that Coltrane recorded. [D] indifference Coltrane
maintained to musical technique。

  1. According to the text, John Coltrane did all of the following during
    his career EXCEPT [A] improvise on melodies from a number of different
    cultures. [B] perform as leader as well as soloist. [C] spend time
    improving his technical skills. [D] eliminate the influence of bebop
    on his own music。

  2. According to the text a major difference between Coltrane and other
    jazz musicians was the

[D] relate the experience of the migrants to the political values that
eventually shaped the character of the United States。

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming”

8.[A] progress[B] fact[C] need[D] question

  1. The text suggests which of the following about the writers on
    management mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2?

[B] Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions。

Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each
passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
(40 points)

Part B

  1. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the
    following ways EXCEPT to

Coltrane himself probably believed that the only essential
characteristic of jazz was improvisation, the one constant in his
journey from bebop to open-ended improvisations on modal, Indian, and
African melodies. On the other hand, this dogged student and prodigious
technician — who insisted on spending hours each day practicing scales
from theory books — was never able to jettison completely the influence
of bebop, with its fast and elaborate chains of notes and ornaments on

Finally, remember that the ultimate measure of your success as an
investor depends not on your owning the best-performing mutual fund.
Only one fund will be the top performer over the next decade, and
there’s no way to predict which one it will be. Meeting your own
financial goals should ultimately be the yardstick by which you measure
your investment success.

16.[A] assessing[B] supervising[C] administering[D] valuing

[C] Migrants to colonial North America were more successful at
acquiring their own land during the eighteenth century than during the
seventeenth century。


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